Rwanda : Amateka y’Abami b’u Rwanda



U Rwanda rwagiye rutegekwa n’abami batandukanye kuva rwabaho kugeza ubwo abanyamateka babagabanyamo ibyiciro bitatu bakurikije ibihe aribyo : ibimanuka, abami b’umushumi n’abami b’ibitekerezo.
Gusa iyo urebye amateka y’ibimanuka usanga yuzuyemo imigani bityo umuntu akaba atapfa kubona icyemeza ko bashobora kuba barabayeho.

Ni muri urwo rwego rero twahisemo kubandikira duereye ku bami b’umushumi kuko iyo urebye mu nyandiko za bamwe mu nzobere mu by’amateka y’urwa Gihanga nka Musenyeri Alegisi Kagame, usanga bagaragaza bimwe mu bishobora kwemeza ko bamwe muri aba bami baba barabayeho koko.

Abami Mgr Alegisi Kagame yise abami b’umushumi ni abami avuga ko bategetse u Rwanda ariko amakuru abavugwaho akaba akirimo gushidikanywaho bitewe n’igihe babereyeho.

Aba bami ariko uko biri kose ntiwabagereranya na ba bandi nabo bajya bavugwa mu bitekerezo by’Ibimanuka kuko aba bo rwose ngo nta washidikanya ko ari umugani batabayeho.

Ese kubita abami b’umushumi byaturutse kuki?

Nk’uko umwanditsi Mgr A. Kagame abisobanura kubita abami b’umushumi bituruka ku buryo bakuturanyije (barwanye inkundura) mu kurema igihugu cy’u Rwanda bahereye ku kantu gato.

Mgr Kagame yaragize ati : « ils ont serré la ceinture et se sont attelé à la formation du Rwanda initial ». Ibi bishatse kuvuga ko mbere u Rwanda nk’igihugu rutabagaho uko turubona ubu ahubwo ko abami ba mbere bagiye barwana bigarurira agace ku kandi kuva ku gasozi ka Gasabo kugeza ku Rwanda tubona ubu.

Mgr Kagame asanga rero aba bami bariziritse umushumi cyangwa se umukanda bivuga ko byabagoye cyangwa se byabaruhije kwagura u Rwanda bityo akabahitiramo kwitwa abami b’umushumi.

Uru rero ni urutonde rw’abami b’umushumi nkuko Mgr Alegisi Kagame yabyanditse mu nyandiko yatabarutse atarashyira ahagaragara.

1.Gihanga Ngomijana (1091-1124)

Uyu mwami witwa Gihanga avugwaho byinshi kandi agafatwa nk’umuntu ngo wahanze u Rwanda. Gusa umuntu ashobora kwibaza niba mbere yaho nta Rwanda rwabagaho.

Mgr Kagame avuga ko umuntu ahereye ku mateka y’abami b’ibimanuka bivugwa ko bakomoka mu ijuru, usanga bavugwa ko baba baramanukiye bwa mbere mu Mubari (mu burasirazuba bw’u Rwanda ahitwa ku rutare rwa Kinani) aho baje basanga hatuwe kandi hategekwa muri icyo gihe n’uwitwa Kabeja wo mu bwoko bw’Abazigaba

Uyu Mwami witwa Gihanga ngo ntibikwiye kuvugwa ko yahanze u Rwanda nk’uko bivugwa ahubwo icyakwemerwa ni uko ngo ari we ntangiriro y’ubutegetsi bw’ingoma nyiginya (fondateur de la dynastie.)

Byongeye kandi Alegisi Kagame ntiyemera ko Gihanga ariwe wahanze inka n’ingoma kuko ngo Gihanga atari we wazanye ubutegetsi bushingiye ku kimenyetso cy’ingoma (tambour emblème) kuko ngo mu ntangiriro z’ubutegetsi bwe, Gihanga nta ngoma yimanye ahubwo yategekeshaga ibindi birango bibiri aribyo inyundo n’ikindi gikoresho cy’umuziki bita urusengo.

Ibyo gushyiraho ingoma nk’ikimenyetso cy’ubwami ngo yaba yarabizaniwe n’uwitwa Rubunga nawe abikopeye mu bucurabwenge bwakoreshwaga n’abitwa Abarenge. Abarenge ngo akaba ari bo bari mu gihugu mbere y’uko iriya ngoma nyiginya iza kurutegeka.

Uyu munyamateka nyarwanda avuga ko ingoma ya mbere yakoreshejwe n’ubutegetsi bwa Gihanga yahawe izina rya Rwoga bituruka ku ijambo «kwogera » cyangwa se « kwamamara »

Rubunga wayizaniye Gihanga ni we bakunze kwita Mwungura ari naho banakomerezaho bagira bati ni « Mwungura wunguye ingoma ubwiru», akaba akomokwaho n’umuryango w’Abatege bituruka ku izina ry’umwe mu bakurambere babo witwaga Nyabutege.

Ikoreshwa ry’ingoma nk’ikimenyetso cy’ubwami bwa Gihanga ngo ntiryakuyeho burundu ikoreshwa rya biriya bimenyetso bindi byakoreshwaga mbere ari byo urusengo n’inyundo nk’uko Mgr Kagame akomeza abivuga.

Uyu mwanditsi atanga urugero rw’uko iyo i bwami bamenyeshaga icibwa ry’umuntu runaka cyangwa se umuryango runaka ariko mu buryo butari burundu bakoreshaga umurishyo w’ingoma, mu gihe iyo iryo cibwa ryemezwaga mu buryo bwa burundu baritangazaga bakoresheje urusengo.

N’ubwo hashidikanywa niba Gihanga ari we wahanze u Rwanda cyangwa atari we ngo ntibikuraho ko yaba yarabayeho kuko kubaho kwe kugaragarira ku kuntu uruhererekane rw’abamukurikiye mu butegetsi bamwubahiriza kandi ugasanga mu ntekerezo zose agarukamo nk’uko uyu mwanditsi abigaragaza.

Mgr Alegisi Kagame avuga ko iyo umwami runaka yageraga ku butegetsi yubakishaga ingoro ye, ariko ku ruhande agashyiraho n’ahagenewe kubahiriza umukurambere Gihanga ariho bitaga urukamishirizo.

Uretse n’ibyo kandi ngo aho umusezero (imva y’umwami) wa Gihanga wari ku gasozi ka Muganza ya Kayenzi ngo naho hakorerwaga imihango yo kumuterekera niba ari ko nabyita. Aha ngaha i bwami ngo bakaba barahoherezaga abiru bo kuhakorera imihango yabugenewe.

Mgr Kagame avuga kandi ko hari indi mihango yamukorerwaga yari ishingiye ku nka ikaba yarakorwaga n’abo mu muryango bita Abaheka ; umutware wabo agatura i Runda ndetse akaba yarafatwaga nk’umwiru mukuru w’inka.

Ntawakwirengagiza ubwoko bw’Abatsobe nabwo ngo bukomoka kuri Gihanga, kuko ngo uwo bakomokaho witwa Rutsobe ari umuhungu yabyaye hanze. Uyu muryango nawo ukaba waraje kubahwa ibwami kubera imihango y’ubwiru wakoraga, dore ko ngo banagiraga ingoma yabo yitwa Rwamo naho umurwa baturagaho ukaba wari i Kinyambi muri Runda.

Kagame avuga ko umuryango w’ Abatsobe wari ufite agaciro mu butegetsi bwite bw’igihugu kuko bari bashinzwe imihango y’ubwiru ijyanye n’umuganura bagatura mu karere k’u Bumbogo bakagira n’umutwe w’ingabo bayoboraga witwa Gakondo ukomoka kuri Gihanga.

Ikindi kivugwa kuri Gihanga ni uko igihugu yategekaga cyarengaga imbibi z’u Rwanda tuzi ubu. Ibi bigashingirwa ku ntekerezo zigaragaza ko ubutegetsi bwe bwageraga hakurya mu burengerazuba bwa RDC aho bitaga mu Bunyabungo ndetse n’ahitwa Buhindangoma hakurya muri Rucuru.

Ahandi hagaragara ibirari by’amateka bishobora kwemeza ko Gihanga yabayeho ni mu majyaruguru y’u Rwanda ahitwa Buhanga hagati ya Nyamutera na Nyakinama ku bazi amazina y’uturere twa cyera.

Aha Mgr Kagame avuga ko hagaragaraga ibigabiro by’aho uyu mwami yari atuye ariko umuntu akaba atakwemeza ko ibyo bigabiro bigihari magingo aya kubera ibikorwa by’ubuhinzi n’imiturire.

Imwe mu mihango yakorerwaga muri aka gace ni iyakorwaga ku mfizi yitwa Rugira ngo yabanaga n’inka zitwa Ingizi nkuko uyu munyamateka abivuga.Iyi mihango ngo yaba ratangiye ku ngoma y’umwami Yuhi II Gahima ari nabwo umutwe w’ingabo zitwa Gakondo zatandukanaga n’izitwa Abangakugoma nyuma aba Bangakugoma bakoherezwa kuba hariya mu Buhanga.

Undi murwa wa Gihanga uvugwa na Mgr Kagame ni uwari ahitwa Nyamirembe cyangwa se Humure yo mu Mutara,aho uyu mwami ngo yaba yarageneye umuhungu we Kanyarwanda ngo azabe ari we umusimbura ku ngoma amaze gutanga.Gihanga yarongoye abagore benshi

Muri izi nyandiko Mgr Alegisi Kagame avuga ko Gihanga yagiye abyara abana batandukanye badahuje ba nyina kuko nawe yari afite abagore benshi nk’uko byari bisanzwe bimenyerewe mu Rwanda rwo hambere.

Uyu mwanditsi avuga ko umugore wa mbere wa Gihanga ari uwitwa Nyamususa akaba umukobwa wa Jeni uturuka mu bwoko bw’Abarenge akaba yarabyaranye n’uyu mugore Kanyarwanda Gahima, Kanyandorwa Sabugabo se wa Mushambo ukomokwaho n’ubwoko bw’ Abashambo ndetse n’uwitwa Kanyabugesera Mugondo se wa Muhondogo sekuruza w’ubwoko Abahondogo, ndetse na nyirarucyaba umukuramberekazi w’ubwoko bw’Abacyaba.

Gihanga yarongoye kandi Nyangobero ukomoka mu Bunyabungo barabyarana Kanyabungo Ngabo waje gutegeka mu Bunyabungo ndetse arongora na Nyirampirangwe babyarana Gashubi se wa Gashingo ukomokwaho n’abitwa Abashingo ndetse ngo babyarana n’undi mwana witwa Gafomo.

Mgr Kagame avuga kandi ko Gihanga yari afite undi mugore w’inshoreke witwaga Nyirarutsobe babyarana Rutsobe umukurambere w’abo mu bwoko bw’Abatsobe.

 

 

2.Kanyarwanda Gahima(1124-1157)

Izina Kanyarwanda nk’uko tubyumva ni izina rivuga nyir’u Rwanda gusa n’ubwo abantu batandukanye bibwira ko izina u Rwanda ari iry’iki gihugu gusa ngo siko bimeze nkuko Mgr Kagame abivuga.

Uyu mwanditsi avuga ko izina u Rwanda usanga ryitwa n’uduce tumwe na tumwe two mu Rwanda ndetse no mu bihugu bihana imbibi narwo kuko ngo rimwe na rimwe iri zina ryanahabwaga tumwe mu turere u Rwanda rwabaga rumaze kwigarurira mu gihe cyarwo cyo kwanda(kwaguka)

Mgr Kagame atanga ingero zitandukanye nko muri Uganda ahitwa Busoga mu majyaruguru y’ikiyaga cya Victoriya ndetse n’agace ko hafi yo ku mupaka w’u Rwanda na Uganda bita u Rwanda rwa Gashara.

Uretse no hanze y’inkiko z’u Rwanda uyu mwanditsi avuga ko no mu gihugu imbere naho hari uturere dutandukanye dufite iryo zina nko mu Mutara aho bitaga mu Mubari hitwaga u Rwanda rwa Binaga ari naho haherereye rwa rutare rw’Ikinani tujya dusoma mu mateka ngo Ibimanuka byamanukiyeho bwa mbere.

Izina u Rwanda turisanga kandi mu bice bya Gasabo ya Gikomero ahari agasozi bitaga ngo ni u Rwanda rwa Ndanyoye,aho i Gasabo akaba ariho hari umurwa mukuru w’ubwami ari nayo mpamvu baheragaho bavuga ko ari u Rwanda rwa Gasabo ndetse bakongeraho ngo rugari rwa Gasabo.

Si aho gusa kuko ubwo umwami Mibambwe Mutabazi yigaruriraga i Nduga ako gace nako ngo bahise bakita u Rwanda rwa Kamonyi bishatse kuvuga ko byari uburyo bwo kwerekana ko aho hantu habaye ahabo rwose.

Muri aya mazina yose rero bikaba byumvikana ko habaga harimo umushinga wo kwagura igihugu nk’uko izina Rwanda ubwaryo ribivuga kuko inshinga kwanda byavugaga kwaguka mu runyakirima(amagambo atagikoreshwa mu kinyarwanda gikoreshwa ubu).

Kanyarwanda Gahima rero waje asimbuye se ku ngoma akaba ngo ari yo mpamvu yahawe ririya zina rya Kanyarwanda kubera inshingano yari asigiwe na se Gihanga zo gukomeza kwagura ubutaka yari arazwe.

3. Yuhi Musindi(1157-1180)

Umwami wakurikiye Kanyarwanda ku itonde ry’abami b’umushumi yitwa Yuhi Musindi akaba yaranitwaga Yuhi ry’i Gara.aka gace ka Gara rero ngo bishoboka ko baba barashakaga kuvuga Ngara ya  Rubungo yari iherereye mu karere ka Bwanacyambwe nkuko Mgr Alegisi Kagame yabyanditse.

Uyu mwanditsi avuga ko uyu mwami ari we mukurambere w’ubwoko bw’ Abasindi ari naho ubu bwoko bukomora iryo zina nkuko benshi mu buzukuru ba Gihanga bagiye batanga amazina y’ubwoko bubakomokaho.

4. Ndahiro Ruyange (1180-1213)

Uyu mwami we Mgr Alegisi Kagame ntacyo amuvugaho cyane cyerekeye ubutegetsi bwe kuko uyu mwami yamenyekaniye ku muhungu we Ndoba wamusimbuye ku ngoma doreko bakunze no kumwita Ndoba ya Ndahiro.

Si uyu mwana wenyine Ndahiro yaba yarabyaye kuko amateka avuga ko yanabyaye undi mwana witwa Kingali akaba ngo ariwe sekuruza wa Gitandura uvugwa ku gihe cy’ingoma ya Ruganzu I Bwimba.

Gusa Gitandura wo ku ngoma ya Ruganzu Bwimba ntakwiriye kwitiranwa na Gitandura ukomokwaho n’abitwa Abatandura wabayeho ku ngoma ya Ndahiro Cyamatare ari nawe sekuruza w’abiru b’Abatandura bari bashinzwe imihango y’ingoma yitwaga Kimumugizi kuko ngo Gitandura sekuruza ari we warokoye iyi ngoma mu gihe cy’urupfu rwa Ndahiro Cyamatare.

5. Ndoba(1213-1246)

Umwami wa gatanu ku itonde ry’abami b’umushumi ni uyu twari dukomojeho witwa Ndoba, izina mu Kinyarwanda gisanzwe ngo ryaba rituruka ku nshinga kuroba.

Ndoba ngo azwiho kuba yarabyaye abana benshi kandi ababakomokaho bakaba nabo baritiriwe imiryango yaje kubakomokaho nyuma nk’uwitwa Mukobwa ukomokwaho n’ubwoko bita Abakobwa, Muturagara ukomokwaho n’abitwa Abaturagara, Mugunga ukomokwaho n’Abagunga, Munyiga ukomokwaho n’Abenemunyiga, Mupfunfu ukomokwaho n’Abenemupfunfu, Cyambwe ukomokwaho n’Abenecyambwe ndetse n’abandi.

Imyinshi muri iyi miryango igenda igaragara mu mihango y’ubwiru itandukanye nk’uw’Abakobwa bakomokamo uwitwa Cyenge wigeze gutegeka mu nzibacyuho ubwo Ruganzu Bwimba yatangaga ndetse kuva ubwo uyu muryango ukagabirwa kuyobora intebe y’Abiru.

6. Samembe(1246-1279)

Izina rya Samembe ntirigaragaza neza igisobanuro ndetse nta n’icyo bamuvugaho cyane.Icyokora ngo nawe afite imiryango mu Rwanda bivugwa ko imukomokaho ku buryo umuntu yakwemeza ko yaba yarabayeho.

7. Nsoro Samukondo(1279-1312)

Nkuko Mgr Alegisi Kagame yabyanditse ngo Samukondo izina rye bwite ni Muhigi naho Samukondo akaba yararyiyise nyuma nk’igisingizo cy’intwari yo ku rugamba. Ibi kandi nta gitangaje kuko atari we wenyine ugaragaraho kwiyita izina ritandukanye n’irye bwite kuko urugero nka Mutara Semugeshi nawe yari yarafashe izina rya Muyenzi. Ku ngoma y’uyu Nsoro Muhigi Samukondo nibwo umutsobe witwa Rwambali yatabariye igihugu bucengeri ubwo barwanaga n’Abanyadorwa.

Amwe mu mazina y’abami b’umushumi ntashyirwa ku rutonde rwabo

Mu mazina y’abami b’umushumi ikigaragara ni uko hari amazina tujya twumva mu mateka nka Rukuge, Nyarume, Rumeza, Rubanda ariko ugasanga umwanditsi Mgr Alegisi Kagame atarayashyize ku itonde ry’abami b’umushumi.

Uyu mwanditsi w’ amateka avuga ko igituma aya mazina atayashyira ku itonde ry’abami b’umushumi ari uko we ayafata nk’abami b’ibimanuka bamwe usanga amazina yabo aganisha cyane mu mvugo ishushanya aho kuganisha ku mateka ashobora kuba yarabayeho koko.

Ikindi kigaragara kuri uyu mwanditsi ni uko abami babiri Ndoba na Samembe usanga uyu mwanditsi atagaraza amazina yabo ya  cyami ku mpamvu nawe ubwe atagaragaje muri izi nyandiko yitabye Imana atarashyira ahagaraga.

Uru ni urutonde rw’abami b’umushumi n’abagabekazi bimanye ingoma wongeyeho n’abo Mgr Alegisi Kagame yakuyemo:
1 Gihanga Ngomijana + Nyiragihanga Nyirarukangaga

2 Kanyarwanda Gahima + Nyirakanyarwanda Nyamususa

3 Yuhi Musindi + Nyirayuhi Nyamata

4 Rukuge + Nyirarukuge Nyirankindi

5 Nyarume + Nyiranyarume Nyirashyoza

6 Rumeza + Nyirarumeza Kirezi

7 Rubanda + Nyirarubanda Nkundwa

8 Ndahiro Ruyange + Nyirandahiro Cyizigira

9 Ndoba Samembe + Nyirandoba Monde

10 Nsoro Samukondo + Nyiransoro Magondo

 


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